Conceived by Dr. Francisco Franco da Rocha - whom the city of Franco da Rocha pays homage to in his name -, the Asylum for the Alienated of Juquery was opened in 1898, with the design of the famous architect Ramos de Azevedo. Among the many memories that flow through Juquery - its beginning with 800 beds, the exponential increase in inmates and the psychiatric reform that occurred later - the year 1923 marks a fundamental change in its history with the arrival of the psychiatrist, art critic and musician from Osório César (1895-1979) to the institution.
Osório started a pioneering work with the interns - later developed by the Alagoas psychiatrist Nise da Silveira (1905-1999) at Hospital Pedro II, in Rio de Janeiro - by exploring art as a therapeutic tool in psychiatric treatment. He founded and was the director of the Free School of Plastic Arts at Juquery and established a dialogue with key names in world psychoanalysis, such as Sigmund Freud, with whom he maintained correspondences. One of Freud's letters to Osório César is preserved in the Collection, Memory and Culture Center of Complexo Hospitalar do Juquery. The Osório César Art Museum is also located there, which gathers a collection of more than 8,000 works produced by Juquery interns, scheduled to be reopened by the Franco da Rocha City Hall at the end of the second half of 2019.
Currently, the Complexo Hospitalar do Juquery has a small number of resident interns and has a new care model defined as Hospital of Long-Term Beds (Center for Rear and Rehabilitation), in the process of being implemented.